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We normally translate the concent of dukkha as suffering.

I did not realize until fairly recently that there are different types of dukkha.

  • Dukkha-dukkha, the dukkha of painful experiences. This includes the physical and mental sufferings of birth, aging, illness, dying; distress from what is not desirable.
  • Viparinama-dukkha, the dukkha of the changing nature of all things. This includes the frustration of not getting what you want.
  • Sankhara-dukkha, the dukkha of conditioned experience. This includes “a basic unsatisfactoriness pervading all existence, all forms of life, because all forms of life are changing, impermanent and without any inner core or substance (On this level, the term indicates a lack of satisfaction, a sense that things never measure up to our expectations or standards).